haviorist VS Cognitive
Learning is the “relatively permanent change in behavior”
(Burns, R., 2002)
andcan come in the form of observable activities and internal processes.Explanations of what happens when these actions occur are known as learningtheories. These theories include behaviorist, cognitivist, humanist, social learningand constructivist. In this essay behaviorist and cognitivists will be described,compared and contrasted in order to truly understand their approaches.
BEHAVIORIST ORIENTATION DESCRIBED
The behaviorist approach attempts to study learning and behavior within ascientific tradition and was developed by John B. Watson in the early 20
century. Three assumptions set out its notions: The focus of study is generallyobservable behavior, the environment shapes behavior, and the principles of contiguity and reinforcement are essential in explaining the learning process
(Grippin, P., & Peters, S., 1984).
Behaviorists maintain the assumption that we see and experience the worldexactly as it presents itself physically, for everyone. This therefore leads to thenotion that everything functions according to natural laws, and any changeoccurring is due to a cause and effect. Hence, this theory focuses on howenvironmental stimuli elicit behavior and responses.
COGNITIVE ORIENTATION DESCIRBED
Gestalt’s views of Bode, Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka and Lewin later criticised thebehaviorist theory in 1929, through publications. These psychologists proposed“looking at the whole rarther than its parts, and at patterns instead of isolatedevents”
(Ormrod, J. E., 1995)
Cognitive psychology assumes that humans have the capacity to process and organize information in their mind. It is concerned less with visible behavior and more with the thought processes behind it. Cognitive psychology tries to understand concepts such as memory and decision making.
Behaviorism only concerns itself with the behavior that can be observed. It assumes that we learn by associating certain events with certain consequences, and will behave in the way with the most desirable consequences. It also assumes that when events happen together, they become associated and either event will have the same response. It does not note any difference between animal behavior and human behavior.
Both branches of psychology attempt to explain human behavior. However, they are both theories have been replaced by other approaches (such as cognitive behaviorism - which takes the best of both theories - and social psychology- which looks at how our interactions with others shape our behavior).
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Note: There are ten different perspectives (theories): Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt, Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Evolutionary, Physiological,
Cognitive, and Culture and Diversity.
Comparing Cognitive and Behaviorist Psychology
The cognitive approachrevolves around the concept of understanding why people act in specific ways requires that we understand the internal processes of how the mind works. Cognitive psychology is specialized branch of psychology involving the study of mental processes people use daily when thinking, perceiving, remembering, and learning. The core focus of cognitive psychology is on the process of people acquiring, processing, and storing information.
The practical applications for cognitive research include improving memory, increasing decision-
making accuracy, and structuring curricula to enhance learning. Cognitive psychology is associated with related disciplines such as neuroscience, philosophy, linguistics, and instructional design. Researchers in cognitive psychology uses scientific research methods to study mental processes and does not rely on subjective perceptions.
From 1950 and 1970, there was a shift away cognitive approach and movement towards behavioral psychology that focuses on topics such as attention, memory, and problem-solving. In 1967, American psychologist Ulric Neisser described his approach in his book Cognitive Psychology. Neisser states that cognition involves "all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations... Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon."
The behaviorist approach emphasizes observable external behaviors rather than the internal state of the mental processing of information. Key concepts of behavioral psychology includes conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment. The basis of behavioral psychology suggests that all behaviors are learned through associations as demonstrated by physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who proved that dogs could be conditioned to salivate when hearing the sound of a bell. This process became known as classical conditioning and has became a fundamental part of behavioral psychology.
There are a number of different forces that can impact how quickly a behavior is acquired, the strength of that association, and how long the effect lasts. The following list describes possible scenarios:
- Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthens.
- Extinction is when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear.
- Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response.
- Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.
- Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
- Cognitive Psychology focuses on the way humans process information concerning how they think, perceive, remember, and learn.
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- Autonomic Nervous System - NDRF The autonomic nervous system conveys sensory impulses from the blood vessels , the heart and all of the organs in the chest, abdomen and pelvis, etc.
- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder All kids have worries and doubts. But some have obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) in which their worries compel them to behave in certain ways.
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