Contemporary photography, c. 1945–present
With the improvement in colour materials and processes, photographers became more interested in its creative possibilities. Beginning in the 1940s, American photographer Eliot Porter produced subtle studies of birds and nature in which colour allowed him to render an unparalleled level of nuance. Appreciated for both their scientific and their aesthetic value, these photographs embodied the potential of colour. Austrian photojournalist Ernst Haas first used colour in the photo-essay New York for Lifemagazine in 1953. Through this and similar projects he challenged the standard of using only black and white in photojournalism, and his use of colour added vibrancy to images of everyday life. While these and other experiments achieved some success, it was not until later in the century that colour dominated photographic output and was incorporated into daily newspapers.
In the period after World War II, as the United States entered a period of domestic peace and prosperity, many photographers there moved away from documentary realities and focused instead on the intrinsic qualities of photography; such experiments paralleled the ascendancy of the Abstract Expressionist art movement, which similarly looked at the intrinsic quality of painting. Minor White combined ideas about photography’s incomparable descriptive power, taken from Edward Weston, with those about its emotional expressiveness, taken from Alfred Stieglitz. Through his long career as an influential teacher and founding editor of Aperture, White developed the idea that a photograph should contain an inner message that might not be immediately visible on the surface.
Other American photographers influenced by the Abstract Expressionist style of the era included Aaron Siskind, who found formal configurations in graffiti, weathered wood and plaster, and torn billboards (what he called the “detritus of the world”), and Harry Callahan, whose work demonstrated a highly developed sense of linear form. Siskind and Callahan inspired a generation of young photographers through their teachings at the Institute of Design, the school that had been started in 1937 in Chicago by Moholy-Nagy as the New Bauhaus. Barbara Crane, Ken Josephson, and Garry Winogrand were among students who later achieved fame. In England Bill Brandt created expressive photographs of nudes, shooting his subject matter at such close range that the human body took on the appearance of series of patterns and abstract designs. In Germany Otto Steinert led the Fotoform group of photographers, who created close-up views of nature that were also nearly abstract in their effects.
By the 1960s similar styles and ideas in photography had spread to Asia, in part because photographic magazines became widely available. Japanese photographers had been aware of Modernist currents before World War II, but afterward they pursued them more openly. Among the important photographers of this generation were Shōmei Tomatsu, who made vivid images on the streets of Tokyo; Eikō Hosoe, who captured imagery evoking human sensuality; and Hiroshi Sugimoto, who was entranced by images conveying stillness and emptiness. For a period the government in China exerted control over photographic imagery, but by the late 20th century photographers had found some freedoms. Chen Changfen was able to indulge his interest in colour abstractions, and Xie Hailong produced photographic documentations of problems in contemporary Chinese society, such as the difficulties faced by rural students seeking an education.
Street photography might be considered a special aspect of documentation: the street photographer is intrigued by the serendipitous nature of street activity, but, in contrast to the social documentarian, the street photographer does not necessarily have a social purpose in mind. Important street photographers included Helen Levitt, who documented subjects such as underprivileged children and young African Americans. All her work was infused with a compelling sense of immediacy. Levitt was following the steps of Cartier-Bresson, Brassaï, and André Kertész—the best known of the many European photographers of the 1930s–50s who used their small cameras to capture the vitality of urban life. Roy DeCarava documented his native Harlem and the civil rights movement; he said that he strove for “a creative expression, the kind of penetrating insight and understanding of Negroes which I believe only a Negro photographer can interpret.” This kind of street photography, made possible by the increasing availability of light portable cameras with fast-acting mechanisms, appealed to photographers around the world. Indian photographer Raghubir Singh, who worked in colour, sought to reveal both the inner and outer life of his people through his street photography.
Other social documentation in the postwar period used the medium to examine contemporary society from a distance. Such efforts had various labels, including “social landscape.” Inspired by Swiss-born émigré Robert Frank, who during the 1950s viewed American culture with an ironic eye, American photographers such as Bruce Davidson, Lee Friedlander, and William Klein were among those whose work suggested the effects of contemporary culture on people in industrialized societies. Often utilizing 35-mm cameras, these photographers caught seeming mundane everyday moments in works that resembled snapshots. Beneath this seeming spontaneity lay an element of critique, however, that in some cases paralleled Pop art’s examination of the banality of contemporary consumer culture.
Several important photographers defied categorization. In the early 1960s the photographer Seydou Keïta, working as a commercial portraitist in Mali, allowed his sitters to arrange and costume themselves. The resulting photographs created an extensive and compelling documentation of his country’s people. In the same period, influenced by the mordant eye of the earlier Austrian émigré photographer Lisette Model, Diane Arbus created challenging portraits of people living outside prescribed ideas of “normalcy,” such as transvestites and the intellectually disabled.
Developments from the 1970s to the present
Continuing the example set by Arbus, a gritty sort of social documentation emerged beginning in the 1970s and ’80s, when photographers such as Larry Clark and Nan Goldin documented alternative lifestyles involving drug addiction, transvestism, and casual sex. In particular, Goldin created an elaborate series titled The Ballad of Sexual Dependency, through which she compiled an evolving record of the people she and her camera encountered. Such direct, unflinching photographs established intimate documentary work as an important genre in the late 20th century. Photographers such as Sally Mann and Tina Barney extended this genre to portray intimate, sometimes unsettling images of their own families.
Goldin usually photographed in colour, which added to the harsh sense of reality in their work; this represented a general move toward colour among photographers of their generation. William Eggleston pushed the artistic boundaries of colour by using it to explore the banality of small-town existence; along these same lines, Candida Höfer used colour to emphasize the tedium of institutional life. Richard Misrach created a massive project, known as the Desert Cantos, in which he photographed desert scenes in colour, sometimes juxtaposed against sinister elements such as nuclear sites. Barbara Norfleet, Joel Meyerowitz, Stephen Shore, Barbara Kasten, and Franco Fontana were among the other prominent photographers of the period who used colour expressively in landscapes, interiors, still lifes, and street scenes.
From the 1970s on, as the advent of television news began to affect the popularity of picture magazines, many photojournalists whose work had been published in magazines began to take advantage of a burgeoning interest in photographic picture books. These, often produced in conjunction with exhibits, comprised photographs of newsworthy events or topics of social interest along with informative texts. Working in black and white, Swiss-born photographer Claudia Andujar (working in Brazil) and Mexican photographer Graciela Iturbide portrayed indigenous peoples—groups they believed were becoming marginalized by society—and their customs. Other important figures included English photographer Don McCullin, who portrayed the devastation brought about by wars in Vietnam and in Africa; French photojournalist Raymond Depardon, who worked in Asia, Africa, and Europe; American Mary Ellen Mark, who photographed street performers and prostitutes in India, depicted street children in Seattle, Washington, and spent time documenting the inmates of a mental hospital; and Brazilian photographer Sebastião Salgado, who examined work and workers throughout the world, exhibiting and publishing a number of books on that topic. For his ability to make world events come pictorially alive, American James Nachtwey was three times the winner of the International Center of Photography’s photojournalism awards. By the end of the century, the technology used by these photojournalists had changed. Digital cameras sent images directly to computers, and programs allowed images to be altered seamlessly, making newspaper and magazine darkrooms obsolete.
The documentation of artifacts, begun in the 19th century, continued to interest late 20th-century photographers. Italian photographer Gabriele Basilico and American photographer Lewis Baltz concentrated on architecture and the built environment. The German duo Bernd and Hilla Becher produced an extensive portrayal of industrial buildings such as mine tipples and factories, which they usually displayed in carefully planned arrangements of multiple prints. This sort of project combined traditional documentary conventions with postmodern concepts about typologies.
Fashion photographers found their role redefined at the end of the century. As giants of fashion photography from earlier in the century such as Irving Penn and Richard Avedon became the subjects of major museum retrospectives, fashion and celebrity photography, initially meant to illustrate fashion magazines such as Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue, became fully recognized as an art form. Photographers David LaChapelle, Annie Leibovitz, Helmut Newton, Mario Testino, and Bruce Weber were among those whose work was esteemed enough to be exhibited in both gallery and museum shows and published in popular monographs.
Throughout most of the 20th century, the art world was dominated by painting and sculpture, with photography seen as a separate but not necessarily equal art form. In the 1980s and ’90s, however, as new media such as video, performance, and installation blurred definitions of “art,” photography became one of the art world’s most prominent media. During this period a generation of prominent photographers, many of them American, helped break down these barriers between photography and “art.” American Robert Mapplethorpe received a maelstrom of attention for his masterfully executed photographs, which ranged from still lifes to portraits to, most controversially, sadomasochistic and homoerotic themes. American photographer Cindy Sherman became an international art star for her elaborately staged self-portraits in which she posed in a variety of stereotypical feminine roles and, in so doing, critiqued these clichés. Barbara Kruger, also American, gained prominence for her modern-day montages, in which she juxtaposed photographic images with text containing social critique—perhaps most famously, the phrases “I Shop, Therefore I Am” and “Your Body Is a Battleground.” A similar use of photography in mixed-media was pursued by American Carrie Mae Weems, who reproduced 19th-century photographs of slaves on a series of banners and scrims, presenting them in a three-dimensional arrangement that commented on the visual representation of African Americans throughout history.Naomi Rosenblum
Into the 21st century: the digital age
The transformation of photography from an analog medium relying on chemically developed light-sensitive emulsions to one using digital technologies for image capture and storage began in the late 1980s with the introduction of the first consumer digital cameras and in 1990 the first version of Adobe Photoshop, a program for adjusting and manipulating digital image files. Conceived as an extension of the conventional darkroom, the program adopted many of the traditional tools of black-and-white film photography but let photographers go even further. By giving photographers the ability to easily change the structure of an image, and even its contents, it called into question long-held assumptions about photographic veracity or documentary “truth value.” To some minds, it changed the very nature of the medium.
Digital photography’s full impact was not felt until the first decade of the new century. Even as late as 2001, news events—most significantly, the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C.—were photographed primarily with film cameras. But because digital images could be transmitted and edited much more quickly, by decade’s end nearly all newspapers and magazines had transitioned to a digital workflow process, and their photographers were using digital cameras designed for professionals.
The transgressive aspect of digital photography was apparent even before its widespread adoption, as in 1982 when the augustNational Geographic magazine published an altered image of the Egyptian pyramids. Because the magazine’s cover required a vertical image, editors used early computer software to push the pyramids closer together than they appeared in the original film photograph. The manipulation of visual fact for increased visual impact extends back before computers into the 19th century, notably during the Crimean War and American Civil War, but a spate of incidents of digital alteration of news photographs in the first decade of the 21st century created an uproar and led to the establishment of journalistic codes of ethics intended to regulate the alteration of digital images. Several photojournalists lost their jobs after their published pictures were found to have been digitally doctored.
Whereas photojournalists and documentarians reacted with caution to what came to be called digital imaging, other types of photographers were generally enthusiastic about its possibilities. Many artists using photography as their medium developed creative approaches that took advantage of the seamless mutability of digitally altered images, extending a long history of photographic collage, double printing, and other pre-digital forms of manipulation. Among the early adopters were Aziz + Cucher (Anthony Aziz and Sammy Cucher), Andreas Gursky, and Loretta Lux, all of whom stretched the limits of what is believable about a photographic image. Digital alteration also influenced the spheres of fashion and celebrity, as photographers such as Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin (working together as Inez & Vinoodh) remade the looks of models and movie stars. Magazines began to regularly send their cover photographs to digital retouchers to eliminate blemishes and minimize their models’ waistlines.
Arguably the most-profound impact of digital photography has been the proliferation of picture taking and picture sharing. Since 2007, the year Apple introduced its first iPhone, so-called smartphones have become ubiquitous, as have picture-sharing applications like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram that enable users to upload pictures from phone to Internet in a matter of seconds. One result has been an almost unfathomable archive of images of mundane events and everyday places, a virtual map of the world that finds its commercial equivalent in Google Earth, which incorporates both satellite views and Google Street View, an assemblage of ground-level pictures of human habitation.
At the same time, commercial, governmental, and military uses of photography have expanded to include 24-hour surveillance of public sites and businesses, the remote targeting of drone missile strikes, databases of digital fingerprints, portraits on identification cards, and the development of face-recognition software to aid in the identification of criminals and terrorists. Debates about the impact of the camera on civil liberties have intensified as a result.
Photographers have reacted to digital photography’s omnipresence in a variety of ways. Some—such as Chuck Close, Sally Mann, Deborah Luster, and Jerry Spagnoli—have journeyed back to photographic processes of the 19th century, making daguerreotypes or working with wet-collodion plates, or—like Chris McCaw and Alison Rossiter—have taken to printing on outdated enlarging paper from the mid-20th century. Photographic books, predicted to be made obsolete by readily viewable online images, have experienced a resurgent popularity, not only because digital printing has reduced the cost of publication but also because books allow photographers to control the narrative sequence and context in which their images are seen.
Others have seized an opportunity to critically reflect on the new image environment in which they live. Trevor Paglen, for example, has photographed the light trails of spy satellites as they cross the night sky. In addition, the convergence of still digital photographs and moving video images and the popularity of Web design tools that allow for animation, motion control, and audio editing have produced a creative arena in which photography is but one tool in the production of multimedia experiences. In the 21st century, photography has been absorbed into both the contemporary art world and that of online digital communication, blurring its formerly distinct identity but vastly enhancing its importance as a visual medium.Andy Grundberg
Gail Hawisher and Cynthia Selfe created a volume that set the agenda in the field of computers and composition scholarship for a decade. The technology changes that scholars of composition studies faced as the new century opened couldn't have been more deserving of passionate study. While we have always used technologies (e.g., the pencil) to communicate with each other, the electronic technologies we now use have changed the world in ways that we have yet to identify or appreciate fully. Likewise, the study of language and literate exchange, even our understanding of terms like literacy, text, and visual, has changed beyond recognition, challenging even our capacity to articulate them.As Hawisher, Selfe, and their contributors engage these challenges and explore their importance, they "find themselves engaged in the messy, contradictory, and fascinating work of understanding how to live in a new world and a new century." The result is a broad, deep, and rewarding anthology of work still among the standard works of computers and composition study.
Subjects: Language & Literature