Disaster-prone regions in India.
Map showing winds zones, shaded by distribution of average speeds of prevailing winds.
Natural disasters in India, many of them related to the climate of India, cause massive losses of life and property. Droughts, flash floods, cyclones, avalanches, landslides brought on by torrential rains, and snowstorms pose the greatest threats. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslides, hurricanes etc. In order to be classified as a disaster it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss. Other dangers include frequent summer dust storms, which usually track from north to south; they cause extensive property damage in North India and deposit large amounts of dust from arid regions. Hail is also common in parts of India, causing severe damage to standing crops such as rice and wheat and many more crops.
Landslides and Avalanches
Landslides are very common indeed in the Lower Himalayas. The young age of the region's hills result in labile rock formations, which are susceptible to slippages. Rising population and development pressures, particularly from logging and tourism, cause deforestation. The result is denuded hillsides which exacerbate the severity of landslides; since tree cover impedes the downhill flow of water. Parts of the Western Ghats also suffer from low-intensity landslides. Avalanches occurrences are common in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim.
Floods in India
Floods are the most common natural disaster in India. The heavy southwest monsoon rains cause the Brahmaputra and other rivers to distend their banks, often flooding surrounding areas. Though they provide rice paddy farmers with a largely dependable source of natural irrigation and fertilisation, the floods can kill thousands and displace millions. Excess, erratic, or untimely monsoon rainfall may also wash away or otherwise ruin crops. Almost all of India is flood-prone, and extreme precipitation events, such as flash floods and torrential rains, have become increasingly common in central India over the past several decades, coinciding with rising temperatures. Meanwhile, the annual precipitation totals have shown a gradual decline, due to a weakening monsoon circulation as a result of the rapid warming in the Indian Ocean and a reduced land-sea temperature difference. This means that there are more extreme rainfall events intermittent with longer dry spells over central India in the recent decades.
Cyclones in India
Intertropical Convergence Zone, may affect thousands of Indians living in the coastal regions. Tropical cyclogenesis is particularly common in the northern reaches of the Indian Ocean in and around the Bay of Bengal. Cyclones bring with them heavy rains, storm surges, and winds that often cut affected areas off from relief and supplies. In the North Indian Ocean Basin, the cyclone season runs from April to December, with peak activity between May and November. Each year, an average of eight storms with sustained wind speeds greater than 63 kilometres per hour (39 mph) form; of these, two strengthen into true tropical cyclones, which have sustained gusts greater than 117 kilometres per hour (73 mph). On average, a major (Category 3 or higher) cyclone develops every other year.
During summer, the Bay of Bengal is subject to intense heating, giving rise to humid and unstable air masses that produce cyclones. Many powerful cyclones, including the 1737 Calcutta cyclone, the 1970 Bhola cyclone, the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone and the 1999 Odisha cyclone have led to widespread devastation along parts of the eastern coast of India and neighboring Bangladesh. Widespread death and property destruction are reported every year in exposed coastal states such as Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal. India's western coast, bordering the more placid Arabian Sea, experiences cyclones only rarely; these mainly strike Gujarat and, less frequently, Kerala.
In terms of damage and loss of life, Cyclone 05B, a supercyclone that struck Orissa on 29 October 1999, was the worst in more than a quarter-century. With peak winds of 160 miles per hour (257 km/h), it was the equivalent of a Category 5 hurricane. Almost two million people were left homeless; another 20 million people lives were disrupted by the cyclone. Officially, 9,803 people died from the storm; unofficial estimates place the death toll at over 10,100.
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- General overview
- Resources on Natural Disasters
- Maps, imagery, and statistics
We are providing many paragraphs, long essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here. Here you can find Essay on is the United Nations unnecessary in English language for students in 1000 words. In this article cover Topic : Introduction of disaster Management, Classification of disaster, Define disaster management and elaborate its contribution to the society, Some important Acts passed by the Government of India to help victims of disasters, The initiatives taken by NDMA and DRR, Various governments schemes, The shortcomings of the role played by the government and Need of well-equipped and advanced technology to tackle the problem.
Nature has no limit, when it attacks with all its anger, it does not differentiate between rich or poor, rural or urban, women or children; it ruins the havoc on everyone under their clutch. A disaster is a serious disorder that attacks human beings by human beings, including extensive destruction of human, physical, environmental harm etc.
Disaster can be classified as a natural and man-made disaster. Some of the natural disasters are landslides, hurricanes, forest fires, storms, floods, earthquakes, droughts, hailstorms and tsunami. Natural disaster can take different forms and limits or durations, but it is certain to strike the loss of life and infrastructure. Where a natural disaster is an event where nature attacked the unmanned area, thereby causing no loss of life or property.
Man-made disasters are caused or induced disasters from human activities. This includes chemical spills and groundwater pollution, electrical service blackout, radiological emergencies, reservoir-induced earthquake, nuclear leakage, terrorism, civil unrest and many more dangerous material emergencies. Man-made disasters are equally vulnerable because they create a bigger threat to both, people and property.
Disaster management comes in light because in India there is a lot of loss of life and property in the past. Disaster management is a very important process that can be defined as an active measure to reduce the loss of life and property, measures of rescue, relief, rehabilitation and recovery. This is the creation of schemes through which communities can reduce the vulnerabilities against hazards and confront disasters. This does not end the catastrophe, but to reduce its impact, this concept is very important for society and nations, because it understands or destroys human mortality, loss of revenue and assets due to planning and failure to make an effective armor Can damage. By passing and enforcing various laws and acts, the government has stepped up a strong foothold to create a standard plan for disaster management.
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 provides institutional, legal, financial and coordination mechanism at the center, state, district and panchayat or municipal level. This Act establishes National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister with a tenure of five years.
It helps in laying out plans and policies for effective management and implementation of the Disaster Management Act. There is also a provision for setting up National Disaster Management Team and National Disaster Management Institute. National Disaster Management Force has played a major role in the floods of Jammu and Kashmir recently, the Hoodhad Cyclone 2014, Chennai in 2015, floods and Nepal earthquake 2015.
Under this Act, the National Executive Committee provides a draft for National Disaster Management Plan and its timely review and updation to ensure it. Secretary level officer of the Government of India presides over the National Executive. This work is vulnerable to its structural and functional rigidity and centralized attitude of bureaucrats headed by various offices. Therefore, it is imperative that for a smooth coordination between state and non-governmental organizations, fast action plan in the time of disaster should be prepared for NDMA's greater effectiveness and efficiency.
Under the same Disaster Management Act, provision has been made for the Authority at the state and district levels. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a policy that exposes comprehensive frameworks for disaster relief.
There are mainstream DRRs in the strategy of development in key areas identified in the DRR; Awareness and increase in preparedness; Strengthening the initial warning system with the help of science and technology; Strengthening the Rescue and Relief Mechanism "Many government schemes like better rehabilitation and reconstruction health, food security, agriculture, rural and urban development, drinking water, housing etc., which the government operates in the areas to reduce the impact of disasters in India Does.
The National Health Mission is different for health programs, rural and urban areas under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Some very successful programs are Polio Eradication Program, Vector Birth Disease Control, National Immunization Planning Rainbow etc.
For food security, welfare programs under the government include programs for the National Food Safety Act, Lactating Mothers, which provides adequate nutrition to mother and child such as Iron and Folic Acid.
These programs take care of sustainable development goals to reduce hunger and malnutrition, which has the ability to inadequate damage to future generations, which is a slow-moving disaster.
Several new schemes like Prime Minister Crop Ill Scheme (Peak Insurance Scheme), Pradhan Mantri Krishi Irrigation Scheme (Irrigation Program), Soil Health Card Scheme and Paramparaget Agricultural Development Scheme (organic farming scheme) have been started under the agro class.
This scheme will effectively save the hard work of farmers from natural calamities such as drought, flood, insect pests; Irrigation program will ensure adequate water supply to reduce the number of farmer suicides in Vidarbha, Telangana etc. in dry areas.
Housing schemes introduced in recent days include Housing for All, 2022 (Urban) and Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Rural (Rural). It will serve the purpose of saving over extreme temperatures (heat waves and crust mercury) and marginal rainfall or cyclones such as marginalization.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was based on the idea of being reactive so far from an active perspective. However, recently LitRarkhand flood has suggested business as a general perspective. Apart from this, policy compliance at different levels of government is weak. Buildings are not in line with Indian Standards Bureau, Flexible Infrastructure and Fire Trucks, access to residential areas is rare. Apart from this, systemic inefficiency has worked hard to strengthen the government's development programs in the mainstream. Technological advancement has been integrated to some extent, yet many untouched areas are sensitive.
The second sector of the obstacle in funding for disaster management. According to the World Bank report, due to disaster every year, India loses 2% of its gross domestic product. Apart from this, disaster assessment is done only at face value in India. The way these disasters affect the livelihood of the victims, is not responsible for them. Disaster is a state subject in India, hence the state has the responsibility of providing assistance and assistance to each state.
We have two institutional funds in India, i.e. National Disaster Management Fund and National Disaster Mitigation Fund. We also have a crisis management committee at the national level headed by the Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Government, but still we have well equipped and learned techniques, adequate funds, community at all levels to prevent or rebuild loss and damage. Participation and coordinated efforts are required.